What is a hard drive?
New York Data Recovery
Data Recovery in New York City - (888)-275-2684
Jan 31st, 2010 17:21
forum net tr, gaurav sabharwal, Mind Week, i can do it, ny dr, http://www.micronixpc.com, http://www.itchimes.com
The hard drive stores all the computer's information and retains the
information when the computer is turned off. A fast hard drive is
needed to supply the CPU with data as fast as it needs it. Hard drive
sizes are typically measured in GigaBytes. The larger the number, the
more applications and games you can have installed.
Nearly every desktop computer and server in use today contains one or
more hard-disk drives. Every mainframe and supercomputer is normally
connected to hundreds of them. You can even find VCR-type devices and
camcorders that use hard disks instead of tape. These billions of hard
disks do one thing well -- they store changing digital information in
a relatively permanent form. They give computers the ability to
remember things when the power goes out.
Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up
to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes. They were
originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for
a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to
distinguish them from "floppy disks." Hard disks have a hard platter
that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic
film found in tapes and floppies. At the simplest level, a hard disk
is not that different from a cassette tape. Both hard disks and
cassette tapes use the same magnetic recording techniques described in
How Tape Recorders Work. Hard disks and cassette tapes also share the
major benefits of magnetic storage -- the magnetic medium can be
easily erased and rewritten, and it will "remember" the magnetic flux
patterns stored onto the medium for many years.
In the next section, we'll talk about the main differences between
casette tapes and hard disks.
Cassette Tape vs. Hard Disk
Let's look at the big differences between cassette tapes and hard
disks: The magnetic recording material on a cassette tape is coated
onto a thin plastic strip. In a hard disk, the magnetic recording
material is layered onto a high-precision aluminum or glass disk. The
hard-disk platter is then polished to mirror-type smoothness.
With a tape, you have to fast-forward or reverse to get to any
particular point on the tape. This can take several minutes with a
long tape. On a hard disk, you can move to any point on the surface of
the disk almost instantly. In a cassette-tape deck, the read/write
head touches the tape directly. In a hard disk, the read/write
head "flies" over the disk, never actually touching it.
The tape in a cassette-tape deck moves over the head at about 2 inches
(about 5.08 cm) per second. A hard-disk platter can spin underneath
its head at speeds up to 3,000 inches per second (about 170 mph or 272
kph)! The information on a hard disk is stored in extremely small
magnetic domains compared to a cassette tape's. The size of these
domains is made possible by the precision of the platter and the speed
of the medium.
Because of these differences, a modern hard disk is able to store an
amazing amount of information in a small space. A hard disk can also
access any of its information in a fraction of a second.
Capacity and Performance
A typical desktop machine will have a hard disk with a capacity of
between 10 and 40 gigabytes. Data is stored onto the disk in the form
of files. A file is simply a named collection of bytes. The bytes
might be the ASCII codes for the characters of a text file, or they
could be the instructions of a software application for the computer
to execute, or they could be the records of a data base, or they could
be the pixel colors for a GIF image. No matter what it contains,
however, a file is simply a string of bytes. When a program running on
the computer requests a file, the hard disk retrieves its bytes and
sends them to the CPU one at a time.
There are two ways to measure the performance of a hard disk:
Data rate - The data rate is the number of bytes per second that the
drive can deliver to the CPU. Rates between 5 and 40 megabytes per
second are common. Seek time - The seek time is the amount of time
between when the CPU requests a file and when the first byte of the
file is sent to the CPU. Times between 10 and 20 milliseconds are
common. The other important parameter is the capacity of the drive,
which is the number of bytes it can hold.
Inside: Electronics Board
The best way to understand how a hard disk works is to take a look
inside. (Note that OPENING A HARD DISK RUINS IT, so this is not
something to try at home unless you have a defunct drive.)
It is a sealed aluminum box with controller electronics attached to
one side. The electronics control the read/write mechanism and the
motor that spins the platters. The electronics also assemble the
magnetic domains on the drive into bytes (reading) and turn bytes into
magnetic domains (writing).
Inside: Beneath the Board
Underneath the board are the connections for the motor that spins the
platters, as well as a highly-filtered vent hole that lets internal
and external air pressures equalize.
The platters, which typically spin at 3,600 or 7,200 rpm when the
drive is operating. These platters are manufactured to amazing
tolerances and are mirror-smooth (as you can see in this interesting
self-portrait of the author... no easy way to avoid that!).
The arm that holds the read/write heads is controlled by the mechanism
in the upper-left corner, and is able to move the heads from the hub
to the edge of the drive. The arm and its movement mechanism are
extremely light and fast. The arm on a typical hard-disk drive can
move from hub to edge and back up to 50 times per second -- it is an
amazing thing to watch!
Inside: Platters and Heads
In order to increase the amount of information the drive can store,
most hard disks have multiple platters.
The mechanism that moves the arms on a hard disk has to be incredibly
fast and precise. It can be constructed using a high-speed linear
Many drives use a "voice coil" approach -- the same technique used to
move the cone of a speaker on your stereo is used to move the arm.
Storing the Data
Data is stored on the surface of a platter in sectors and tracks.
Tracks are concentric circles, and sectors are pie-shaped wedges on a
A typical track is shown in yellow; a typical sector is shown in blue.
A sector contains a fixed number of bytes -- for example, 256 or 512.
Either at the drive or the operating system level, sectors are often
grouped together into clusters.
The process of low-level formatting a drive establishes the tracks and
sectors on the platter. The starting and ending points of each sector
are written onto the platter. This process prepares the drive to hold
blocks of bytes. High-level formatting then writes the file-storage
structures, like the file-allocation table, into the sectors. This
process prepares the drive to hold files.
Data Recovery New York
Phone Number: (888) 275-2684
Click To View Our Website: http://www.micronixpc.com
Call Us at (888) 275-2684 - We can save your information!.
*We are THE recovery experts!*
We specialize in recovering "lost" data from various types of media
including hard drives, floppy disks, digital memory cards, zip disks,
jaz disks, CD's, backup tapes and much more. We can also recover your
information from nearly any operating system, including Windows XP,
2000, NT, ME, 98, 95, all Mac Operating Systems (OS X, OS 9, OS 8),
linux, unix, and many more. Our offices are located in NY. We can help
with Data Recovery New York NY. If you are local, call us at (888) 275-
Click To See More Information On Data Recovery New York
Nobody Can Beat Our Service
We Offer Free Pickup and Delivery in Most Areas
Our Successful Recovery Rate Is About 90% On All Media
We Have Very Competitive Recovery Rates (Most are about $500)
We Have A Very Fast Turn Around Time (24-48hrs in most cases)
We Have A Very Knowledgeable Staff
We Have All Of The Equipment Necessary For Any Recovery You May Need
We Help Businesses AND Individuals
Some Of Our Clients Include the NYPD, Columbia University, NYU,
Visiting Nurse Service, and many more!
We are here to help you with what you are looking for - data recovery
You've come to the right place for data recovery new york.
We have Class 100 Clean Room equipment enabling us to recover data in
even some on the most disastrous situations. We would be happy to
answer any questions that you may have regarding your media. We can't
reliably diagnose any media over the phone, but if you tell us about
your situation, we can give you an idea of how likely it may be to
recover your files. Data Recovery New York is always avalible for you.
Our Recovery Office Address in NY Is:
Please mail your media to the below address with $100 for the
evaluation fee, and your contact information so that we may help you.
545 Eighth Ave
New York, NY 10018
List Of Recoverable Media (Call Us If Not On List)
Hard Drives (IDE, SCSI, and RAID) - Fujitsu, Maxtor, Quantum, Seagate,
IBM, Samsung, Western Digital, And many more.
Flash Media - Secure Digital cards, Smart Media cards, IBM Micro-
drives, Secure Digital/Multi-Media Card (SD/MMC), Compact Flash cards,
Notebook computers memory cards, laptop cards, MP3 Player cards, PDA's
memory, Portable medical equipment media, cell phones memory, digital
camera memory cards, photo printers and more.
Tape and Other Backup Media - Optical Drives and Media, DLT Tapes (DLT
260, DLT 600, DLT 2000, DLT 2000XT, DLT 4000, DLT 7000, DLT 8000, DLT
1, SDLT 220) 8mm DAT (8200, 8200C, 8200XL, 8500, 8500C, 8500XL,
Mammoth-LT, Mammoth, Mammoth-2) 4mm DAT (DDS, DDS-DC, DDS-2, DDS-3,
DDS-4), Floppy Diskettes, SyQuest Cartridges, ¼" Cartridge (QIC Mini
format) (DC 2000, DC 2060, DC 2080, DC 2120, DC 2120XL, DC 2120EX, MC
3000, MC 3020, MC 3080, MC 3080 Wide, MC 3095 Wide, Travan 1, Travan
2, Travan 3, Travan 4, Travan 5, Ditto Max 3GB, Ditto Max 5GB, Ditto
Max 7GB, Ditto Max 10GB, Aiwa Bolt 6.6 GB, Aiwa Bolt 10GB,
Superstation 6.6GB, Superstation 10GB, C4429 - HP 5GB, C4436 - HP
14GB), ¼" Cartridge (QIC Full-size format) (DC 600A, DC 6150, DC 6250,
DC 6525, DC 9100, DC 9120, DC 9200, DC 9250, DC 9500, SLR5, SLR24,
SLR32, SLR50, SLR100), Iomega Zip, Jaz and Ditto, and any other media
type not listed.
If you live in any of the following areas, you are close to our
New York City (NYC), Queens, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Bronx, Staten
Island, Long Island (LI), New Jersey (NJ), Astoria, Bayside,
Bayswater, Flushing, Beechurst, Bell Harbor, Bellaire, Bellerose,
Breezy Point, Briarwood, Broad Channel, Cambria Heights, City Line,
College Point, Corona, Cypress Hills, Douglaston, East Elmhurst, East
New York, Edgemere, Elmhurst, Far Rockaway, Floral Park, Forest Hills,
Fort Tilden, Fresh Meadows, Glen Oaks, Glendale, Hamilton Beach, Long
Island, Highland Park, Hillcrest, Hollis, Hollis Hills, Holliswood,
Holliswood Estates, NJ, Howard Beach, Jackson Heights, Jamaica,
Jamaica Estates, Jamaica Hills, Kensington, Kew Gardens, Kew Gardens
Hills, Laurel Hill, Laurelton, Lindenwood, Little Neck, Long Island
City, Malba, Maspeth, Middle Village, New Hyde Park, Oakland Gardens,
Queens, Ozone Park, Park Slope, Queens Village, Rego Park, Richmond
Hill, Ridgewood, Long Island, Rochdale, nyc, Rockaway Park, Rosedale,
South Ozone Park, nyc, Seaside, Springfield Gardens, St. Albans,
Sunnyside, Wakefield, Whitestone, Woodhaven, New York City, Woodside,
Downtown, East Side, Midtown, Upper Manhattan, New Jersey, West Side,
Albertson, Atlantic Beach, Baldwin, Baldwin Harbor, Bar Harbor, Bay
Park, Bayville, Bellerose Terrace, Bellerose Villages, Bellmore,
Bethpage, Biltmore Shores, Brookville, LI, Carle Place, Cedarhurst,
nyc, Center Island, Cove Neck, nyc, East Atlantic Beach, East
Massapequa, East Rockaway, East Williston, East Hills, East Meadow,
East Norwich, Elmont, Farmingdale, Flower Hill, Franklin Square,
Freeport, Long Island, Garden City, NYC, Garden City Park, Gibson,
Brooklyn, Glen Cove, Glen Head, Glenwood Landing, Great Neck, Greak
Neck Estate, Great Neck Plaza, Greenvale, Harbor Green, Harbor Green
Estate, Long Island, Harbor Hills, nyc, Harbor Isle, Hempstead,
Herricks, Hewlett, Hewlett Bay Park, Hewlett Harbor, Hewlett Neck,
Hicksville, Inwood, Jericho, Kings Point, NY, Lake Success, Lakeview,
Lattingtown, Laurel Hollow, Lawrence, Levittown, Bronx, Queens, Lido
Beach, Locust Grove, Locust Valley, Long Beach, Long Island,
Manhattan, Lynbrook, Malverne, Manhasset, in nyc, Manhasset Hills,
Manorhaven, Massapequa Park, Massapequa Shores, Matinecock, Meadowmere
Park, Merrick, Mill Neck, Mineola, Munsey Park, Muttontown, Nassau
Point, Nassau Shores, New Cassel, NY, New Hyde Park, North Hills,
Oceanside, Long Island, Old Bethpage, Old Brookville, Old Harbor
Green, Plainview, Plainedge, Plandome, Long Island, Plandome Heights,
Port Washington, Roslyn, Uniondale, Williamsburg, Bushwick, Brooklyn
Heights, Cobble Hill, Red Hook, Carroll Gardens, Fort Greene, nyc,
Bedford Stuyvesant, Gowanus, Prospect Heights, Weeksville, Ocean Hill,
East New York, Brownsville, Windsor Terrace, Rugby, New Lots, Spring
Creek, Sunset Park, Long Island, Long Island, Kensington, Canarsie,
Starrett City, nyc, Borough Park, Flatbush, East Flatbush, Midwood,
Dyker Heights, Fort Hamilton, Bensonhurst, Ocean Parkway, Marine Park,
Mill Basin, nyc, Bath Beach, Gerritsen Beach, Sheepshead Bay, Sea
Gate, Coney Island, nyc, Brighton Beach, Manhattan Beach, New York
derlenmis turk video sitesi http://www.videoturk.gen.tr Video secilmis
youtube videolari http://www.youtubevideolari.net/ youtube videos online
video izle tr tube http://www.videotrtube.com/
firmalar sirketler rehberi http://www.sirketfirmarehberi.com/ firma
sirket rehberi adres telefon bilgileri
full program full oyun http://www.forumnettr.com/ download